Posts Tagged ‘Chemnitz’

Human Trafficking Called Haeftlingsfreikauf

Monday, April 17th, 2017


Haeftlingsfreikauf is the German word for ransom money once paid by West Germany to East Germany for the release of East German political prisoners. West Germany also paid ransom moneys for East German citizens who had applied for exit visas but were denied exit by East German authorities. Such human trafficking was unofficially practiced between 1962 and 1990 and sanctioned by both governments.

According to Andreas Apelt, author and historian, 33,755 political prisoners (which included people who had attempted to cross the east/west border illegally) and 250,000 of their relatives were sold to West Germany between 1964 and 1989. The Haeftlingsfreikauf cost West Germany a total of 3.5 billion West Marks. Some of these political prisoners were well-known agents; others were nameless. The prisoners were given the option of being released into the East or into the West. Most of them chose the West. At times, the ransom consisted of western currency. Other times, “buying free” involved “merchandise” for merchandise, such as cadmium, copper, crude oil, rubber, equipment, cooking oil, coffee, tropical fruit. Human trafficking infused the East German economy with much needed cash and merchandise. West Germany assisted for humanitarian reasons.

Haeftlingsfreikauf = ransom moneys paid by West Germany to East Germany of the release of its political prisoners between 1962 and 1990.

Haeftlingsfreikauf = ransom moneys paid by West Germany to East Germany of the release of its political prisoners between 1962 and 1990.

Start of the Haeftlingsfreikauf practice

The first East German political prisoners were bought free during the Christmas season of 1962. At that time, ransom moneys were paid for 20 prisoners and a number of children. They were released to the west in return for three truckloads of fertilizer. During those initial exchanges, the price per prisoner was about 40,000 West Marks. By 1989 that amount had risen to over 95,000 West Marks. Supposedly, the price was based on the “damage” the prisoner had caused to the regime plus the educational investment the East German state had made in the prisoner. For the last Haeftlingsfreikauf in January 1990 West Germany paid with copper, crude oil and light trucks amounting to 65 million West Mark. The funds were deposited in special accounts held by Stasi chief Erich Mielke and by General Secretary Erich Honecker

How the Haeftlingsfreikauf practice worked

Neither side wanted the public to find out about the Haeftlingsfreikauf practice. East Germany did not want to appear weak, and West Germany did not want to be seen as supporting a communist regime. Therefore, the operation remained clandestine. Government representatives unofficially handled the arrangements. Representatives of the Protestant and Catholic Church acted as intermediaries. Attorneys from both sides facilitated the operation. Wolfgang Vogel represented the East German side; Juergen Stange acted on behalf of the West German side. Some prisoner releases took place in the underground railway. In other cases, prisoners were driven across the border in buses with revolving license plates.

How the Prisoners were actually exchanged

Exchanges were handled with utmost discretion. If the exchange involved busses, the prisoners were usually transported to the Kassberg prison in Chemnitz and then driven to the Herleshausen/Wartha border where they were expelled to West Germany. While still in East Germany, the bus displayed East German license plates. At the border crossing, the driver pushed a button on the dashboard, and the license plate pivoted to display a West German license.

I have a friend who was one of the 33,755 political prisoners bought free by West Germany. His story is hair-raising. When he was a high school student still living in East Germany with his family, he and a group of boys in his class decided to defect. It was more of a boys’ prank than a serious desire to leave East Germany. Nonetheless, the boys planned their get-away. But someone denounced them to the authorities. All of the boys were immediately taken into custody, separated and sent to prison. My friend found himself in solitary confinement for the better of six months. One night, he and a number of prison inmates of all ages and both sexes were told to get on a bus in a hurry. The bus was standing ready. They were not allowed to take anything. My friend did not know anyone on the bus.

It was completely dark inside the bus. All the prisoners could see was that they were being driven into the woods. There was dead silence in the bus. The prisoners feared for their lives. Finally, headlights became visible in the distance. Moments later, the headlights went off. The bus continued in the direction of the headlights now gone dark and then came to a stop. The driver turned off the engine. The prisoners were told to quickly get off. Once outside and still in complete darkness, they were barely able to make out the outline of another bus parked directly next to theirs. At gunpoint, they were told to get on the second bus as quickly as possible. Once everyone had boarded, the doors closed, the engine started, and the bus took off. It was still completely dark inside the bus. No one spoke.

A few minutes later, the lights came on inside the bus, music blared from the radio and the driver said, “Welcome everybody. In a few minutes you will be in the West. You are free.”


For a sneak peek at the first 20+ pages of my memoir, “Walled-In: A West Berlin Girl’s Journey to Freedom,” click “Download a free excerpt” on the home page of

Chemnitz Petrified Forest

Thursday, May 14th, 2015

I discovered the Chemnitz Petrified Forest in the courtyard of the Chemnitz Cultural Center when I visited Chemnitz, Germany, last fall. The city is located in Saxony, a state in the central region of Germany. In its 1,000-plus-year history, Saxony has been a medieval duchy, an electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, a kingdom and twice a republic. At the end of World War II, U.S. troops conquered the western part of Saxony, where Chemnitz is located, but later handed it to the Soviets in accordance to the Potsdam Agreement. Chemnitz became part of East Germany and was renamed Karl-Marx-Stadt in 1953. In 1990, when the two Germanys reunited, Chemnitz returned to its original name.

Specimens of the Chemnitz Petrified Forest on exhibit in the Chemnitz Cultural Center - Photo by J. Elke Ertle © 2014

Specimens of the Chemnitz Petrified Forest on exhibit in the Chemnitz Cultural Center – Photo by J. Elke Ertle © 2014

Chemnitz Cultural Center – DAStietz

Specimens from the Chemnitz Petrified Forest are on exhibit in the courtyard of the Chemnitz Cultural Center, named “DAStietz”. In 1913, architect Wilhelm Kreis constructed the building in 1913 for the Tietz family. It served as a large and modern department store and was knows as Kaufhaus Tietz (Department Store Tietz). Because the Tietz family was Jewish, the Nazis closed the store during the pogroms of 1938. In 1945 the building suffered serious damage and was not reconstructed until the 1960s. It reopened as a people-owned department store under the name Zentrum in 1963. In the 1990s, after German reunification, the Kaufhof chain acquired the building and turned it into a shopping center. But when a new department stored opened nearby, the original building was turned into a cultural center. Following extensive renovation, the building reopened in 2004 as “DAStietz”, Along with shops, it now houses the Chemnitz Municipal Library, the Chemnitz Community College, the Museum for Natural History, the New Saxon Gallery and the Chemnitz Petrified Forest.

What is petrified wood

Petrified wood is a fossil wood that is preserved due to a lack of oxygen. Minerals replace the original organic materials. The original structure of the wood remains. The process occurs while the wood is buried under sediment. Over time, water flows through the sediment and deposits minerals in the plant’s cells. As the organic material decays, a stone mold forms in its place.

How the Chemnitz Petrified Forest formed

The Chemnitz Petrified Forest formed as a result of an eruption of a volcano in the Zeisigwald, a large wooded area northeast of the city. The blast uprooted and snapped off the primeval tree ferns and horsetails. Hot tephra (fragments of volcanic rock and lava) covered the tree-like trunks. Fossilization occurred over the millions of years that followed. Although the event occurred about 291 million years ago, the petrified fossils were not discovered until 1737.


For a sneak peek at the first 20+ pages of my memoir, Walled-In: A West Berlin Girl’s Journey to Freedom, click “Download a free excerpt” on the home page of Walled-In is a story of growing up in Berlin during the Cold War.