Archive for the ‘Tête-à-Tête’ Category

Ludwig van Beethoven – lonely giant

Monday, April 10th, 2017

 

Ludwig van Beethoven, German composer and pianist (1770-1827), is still considered a giant of classical music. His family had Dutch roots, and Beethoven sometimes concealed the fact that the Dutch “van” in his name does not denote nobility as the German “von” does. In his late 20s, Ludwig van Beethoven began to experience hearing loss. Toward the end of his life, he was so deaf that he had to be turned around at the end of the premiere of his famous Ninth Symphony to watch the audience applaud because he could not hear them clapping, nor had he heard the orchestra playing.

Ludwig van Beethoven’s Early Years

Unlike his grandfather, who was a renowned musician in Bonn, Ludwig van Beethoven’s father was a mediocre singer with a fondness for alcohol. He became young Beethoven’s first teacher and taught with brutality. Neighbors recalled that the small boy had to stand on top of a footstool to reach the piano keys, his father beating him for any hesitation or mistake. Ludwig van Beethoven not only often ended up weeping while playing the piano, his father also locked him into the cellar, beat him or deprived him of sleep when young Beethoven did not perform to his expectations.

In 1787, the then teenage Beethoven travelled to Vienna for the first time, hoping to study with Mozart. Two weeks later, his mother fell ill, and Ludwig returned to Bonn. Following his mother’s death, his father slipped even deeper into alcoholism, and Ludwig van Beethoven became responsible for the care of his two younger brothers. He spent the next five years in Bonn. Despite these personal struggles, Beethoven composed a significant number of works during this period, showing influences of Mozart and Haydn. In late 1792, Beethoven left for Vienna for the second time to further his studies and established himself as a piano virtuoso.

In his late 20s, Ludwig van Beethoven began to notice some hearing loss. Over time, the loss became profound and Beethoven fell into depression. He wrote to a friend, “I must confess that I lead a miserable life. For almost two years I have ceased to attend any social functions, just because I find it impossible to say to people: I am deaf. If I had any other profession, I might be able to cope with my infirmity; but in my profession it is a terrible handicap.”

http://www.biography.com/people/ludwig-van-beethoven-9204862 – losing-hearing

Ludwig van Beethoven’s Middle Years

Despite his worsening deafness and many personal setbacks, (insurmountable class differences hampered his love life, one of his brothers passed away causing Beethoven to become entangled in a legal dispute with his sister-in-law over the custody of the couple’s nine-year-old son), Ludwig van Beethoven dedicated himself wholeheartedly to musical study. Between 1803 and 1812, he composed an opera, six symphonies, four solo concerti, five string quartets, six string sonatas, seven piano sonatas, five sets of piano variations, four overtures, four trios, two sextets and 72 songs.

Ludwig van Beethoven, photo courtesy of wikipedia. Portrait by Joseph Karl Stieler, 1820.

Ludwig van Beethoven, photo courtesy of wikipedia. Portrait by Joseph Karl Stieler, 1820.

Ludwig van Beethoven’s Later Years

In time, Beethoven’s hearing deteriorated to the point that conversation became so difficult that he had to make use of conversation books. He became lonely, short-tempered and absent-minded. Still, he continued to compose at a furious pace. Some of his most important works were composed during the last 10 years of his life when he was quite unable to hear. Works from this period are the most complex, such as the fourth movement of his Ninth Symphony, which features an elaborate choral setting of Friedrich Schiller’s Ode An die Freude (Ode to Joy), championing the brotherhood of humanity. http://www.walled-in-berlin.com/j-elke-ertle/friedrich-schiller-champion-of-freedom/ Ludwig van Beethoven died in 1827 at the age of 56.

Ludwig von Beethoven’s Major Works

His works include 9 symphonies, 7 concerti, 1 opera, 2 masses, 32 piano sonatas, 10 violin sonatas, 5 cello sonatas, 1 sonata for French horn, 16 string quartets, 5 string quintets, 7 piano trios, 5 string trios, many chamber music pieces and many others.

 

For a sneak peek at the first 20+ pages of my memoir, “Walled-In: A West Berlin Girl’s Journey to Freedom,” click “Download a free excerpt” on the home page of http://www.walled-in-berlin.com

 

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Friedrich Schiller – Champion of Freedom

Monday, April 3rd, 2017

 

Friedrich Schiller (his full name was Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller – ennobled in 1802 allowing him to add “von” to his name) is probably the second most important playwright in Europe after William Shakespeare. Throughout his life, Schiller championed physical and spiritual freedom. Born in 1759 in Marbach in Germany, he produced scores of poems, dramas, historical and philosophical papers. Although “Friedrich Schiller” is not a household name in America, it was Schiller whose eloquent poem, “Ode to Joy”, inspired Ludwig van Beethoven to set it to music in the famous last movement of his Ninth symphony. http://www.walled-in-berlin.com/j-elke-ertle/ode-to-joy-european-national anthem/

 

“It hinders the creative work of the mind if the intellect examines too closely the ideas as they pour in.”

— Friedrich Schiller

Lithograph portrait from 1905, captioned "Friedrich von Schiller" in recognition of his 1802 ennoblement, photo courtesy of wikipedia

Lithograph portrait from 1905, captioned “Friedrich von Schiller” in recognition of his 1802 ennoblement, photo courtesy of wikipedia

Friedrich Schiller’s taxing life

Germany, at the time of Friedrich Schiller, consisted of many small kingdoms. The poet was born in the little duchy of Wuertemberg, a principality of the Holy Roman Empire. He was the second of four children in the family. His father was an army doctor; his mother was a quiet, pious woman. When Friedrich Schiller was 13 years of age, the Duke of Wuertemberg insisted that he enter an elite military academy, the Karlsschule. Until then, Schiller had leaned toward becoming a man of the cloth and felt trapped at the academy. For the next eight years, he studied law and medicine. Strict obedience was stressed. Its students enjoyed little freedom. To keep up his spirits, Friedrich Schiller wrote his first play (Die Raeuber – The Robbers) while still at the school. The play scrutinizes the inequities resulting from class, religious and economic differences. When his play opened in Mannheim in 1780, Schiller stole himself to the opening without first requesting permission. He was 21 years old at the time and sentenced to 14 days in prison. In addition, he was prohibited from publishing any future works. In response to the sentence, Schiller deserted and fled to Weimar where he lived under an assumed name. Forever cash-poor, he penned several plays during that period.

Between 1787 and 1798, Schiller changed course, became Professor of History and Philosophy in Jena and pursued historical studies. In 1794, he struck up a close friendship with Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. http://www.walled-in-berlin.com/j-elke-ertle/goethe-writes-faust-a-closet-drama/This mutually beneficial alliance inspired Schiller to compose some of his best-known dramas, including the Wallenstein Trilogy, Maria Stuart (Mary Stuart), Die Jungfrau von Orleans (The Maiden of Orleans) and Wilhelm Tell (William Tell). In 1805, Friedrich Schiller died of tuberculosis at the age of forty-five.

 

“Opposition always inflames the enthusiast, never converts him.”

— Friedrich Schiller

 

Friedrich Schiller’s Ode to Joy

Many Americans know Friedrich Schiller only through Ludwig van Beethoven’s musical setting of a part of Schiller’s most famous poem, the “Ode to Joy”. From the very year in which the poem was first printed (1786) the Ode an die Freude (Ode to Joy) began to be sung to various musical accompaniments. That same year, a composer by the name of J. Chr. Mueller set the Ode to Joy to music. By 1800 there were at least twenty different versions of “An die Freude” that still survive today. 

https://www.schillerinstitute.org/fid_91-96/931_Schiller_Ode.html

 

For a sneak peek at the first 20+ pages of my memoir, “Walled-In: A West Berlin Girl’s Journey to Freedom,” click “Download a free excerpt” on the home page of http://www.walled-in-berlin.com

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Ode to Joy – European National Anthem

Monday, March 27th, 2017

 

Two hundred years after inception, Ode to Joy is still as popular as ever. Throughout the world, it is seen as a song about resistance to war and repression. It is even speculated that Schiller originally entitled his lyric poem “Ode An die Freiheit” (Ode to Freedom) and later changed it to “Ode An die Freude” (Ode to Joy).

First written in 1785 by German poet Friedrich Schiller as a celebration of the brotherhood of man, Ode to Joy is best known as the 4th and final movement in Ludwig van Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony. When the poem was republished in 1808, Schiller made some minor revisions. This revised version forms the basis for Beethoven’s famous movement. The Ninth Symphony was completed in 1824.

Ludwig van Beethoven, photo courtesy of wikipedia. Portrait by Joseph Karl Stieler, 1820.

Ludwig van Beethoven, photo courtesy of wikipedia. Portrait by Joseph Karl Stieler, 1820.

Becoming the European National Anthem

In 1972, the Council of Europe adopted Beethoven’s famous movement as the European National Anthem. In 1985, it also became the anthem of the European Community and in 1993 that of the European Union. The European Anthem does not replace the national anthems of its member states. It celebrates their shared values and their unity in diversity. It symbolizes not only the European Union but also Europe in a wider sense. Just as Schiller’s lyric poem, the European Anthem symbolizes the human race as one of brothers.

Due to the large number of languages used in the European Union, the European National Anthem is purely instrumental. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vXuhvzbQ5EI In the universal language of music, this anthem expresses the European ideals of freedom, peace and solidarity. It is played on official occasions, such as the opening of Parliament following elections and at formal sittings.

Ode to Joy has been heard around the World

In Chile, women sang Beethoven’s Ode to Joy in the streets and sometimes outside torture prisons during Pinochet’s dictatorship to raise the hope of inmates. In 1989, Chinese protesters sang the Ode to Joy during their march on Tiananmen Square. Shortly after the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989, Leonard Bernstein conducted Beethoven’s Ninth on both sites of the Berlin Wall to celebrate freedom.

German and English Lyrics to the Ode to Joy

Ode an die Freude                                 Ode to Joy

Freude, schoener Goetterfunken             Joy, beautiful spark of divinity,

Tochter aus Elysium.                                 Daughter from Elysium.

Wir betreten feuertrunken                       We enter, burning with fervor,

Himmlische, dein Heiligtum!                   heavenly being, your sanctuary!

 

Deine Zauber binden wieder                    Your magic brings together

Was die Mode streng geteilt;                    what custom has sternly divided;

Alle Menschen werden Brueder,              All men shall become brothers,

wo dein sanfter Fluegel weilt.                  Wherever your gently wing hovers.

 

Wem der grosse Wurf gelungen             Whoever has been lucky enough

Eines Freundes Freund zu sein,              to become a friend to a friend,

Wer ein holdes Weib errungen                Whoever has found a beloved wife,

Mische seinen Jubel ein!                          let him join in the jubilation!

 

Ja, wer auch nur eine Seele                      Yes, and anyone who can call one soul

Sein nennt auf dem Erdenrund!              His own on this earth!

Und wer’s nie gekonnt, der steel             And who cannot, let them slink away

weinend sich aus diesem Bund.              from this gathering in tears.

 

Freude trinken alle Wesen                      Every creature drinks in joy

An den Bruesten der Natur;                    At nature’s breast;

Alle Guten, alle Boesen                            Good and Evil alike

Folgen ihrer Rosenspur.                          Follow her trail of roses.

 

Kuesse gab sie uns und Reben,               She gave us kisses and wine,

Einen Freund geprueft im Tod;               A true friend, even in death;

Wollust ward dem Wurm gegeben,         Even the worm was given desire,

und der Cherub steht vor Gott.                And the cherub stands before God.

 

Froh wie seine Sonnen fliegen                  Gladly, as his suns hurtle

Durch des Himmels praecht’gen Plan,    Through the glorious universe,

Laufet, Brueder, eure Bahn,                       So you, brothers, should run your course,

Freudig wie ein Held zu Siegen.                Joyfully like a conquering hero.

 

Seid umschlungen Millionen!                   Be embraced, you millions!

Diesen Kuss der ganzen Welt!                  This kiss is for the whole world!

Brueder ueber’m Sternenzelt                    Brothers, above the canopy of stars

Muss ein lieber Vater wohnen.                  Must dwell a loving Father.

 

Ihr stuerzt nieder, Millionen?                   Do you bow down before Him, millions?

Ahnest Du den Schoepfer, Welt?             Do you sense the Creator, world?

Such ihn ueber’m Sternenzelt.                  Seek him above the canopy of stars.

Ueber Sternen muss er wohnen.              He must dwell beyond the stars.

 

For a sneak peek at the first 20+ pages of my memoir, “Walled-In: A West Berlin Girl’s Journey to Freedom,” click “Download a free excerpt” on the home page of http://www.walled-in-berlin.com

 

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Donkey Down the Well

Monday, March 20th, 2017

The story of the donkey down the well is an old fable that I think of whenever I feel unappreciated or treated unfairly. I don’t know when or where this inspirational story originated, but it goes something like this:

One day a farmer’s donkey fell into the man’s well. For hours the animal cried pitifully while the farmer tried to figure out what to do. His donkey was old, and the well was dry and of no use to him anymore. The shaft should have been covered up years ago. Now the farmer had a big problem. It would be extremely difficult, if not impossible, to get the old donkey out of the well. With a heavy heart, the farmer decided that it would be best to cover it up, donkey or no donkey. The animal would perish, but the farmer saw no viable alternatives.

He asked all the neighboring farmers to come and help him cover up the well. Each man grabbed a shovel and began to scoop dirt onto the back of the animal in the shaft. The donkey soon realized what was happening and cried dolefully. The men shoveled faster to hasten the end, and after a while, the donkey stopped crying. The farmer and his friends looked down the well.

To their surprise, they saw something unexpected. With each shovel full of dirt that had hit its back, the donkey had shaken it off and let the dirt fall to the ground around him. Then he had simply lifted his foot and taken a step up onto the newly deposited dirt. As the farmer and his neighbors continued to shovel dirt on top of the animal, the donkey continued to shake it off and to take small steps up. After enduring many shovels full of dirt coming his way, the donkey was finally able to step over the edge of the well and happily trot off.

The Donkey down the well, photo courtesy of mylifeyoga.com

The Donkey down the well, photo courtesy of mylifeyoga.com

Moral of the story: Who hasn’t been the donkey at some point in life? I know I have. Now, whenever I find myself in that position, I picture the donkey and try to conquer the obstructions in my path. I look for opportunities that get me to where I want be rather than try to fight what is happening around me. Try it yourself. Picture the donkey, then shake off any unfairness, inequity, discrimination, intolerance, chauvinism, bigotry, prejudice, racism or bias and use them as a stepping stones to where you want to be.

 

For a sneak peek at the first 20+ pages of my memoir, “Walled-In: A West Berlin Girl’s Journey to Freedom,” click “Download a free excerpt” on the home page of http://www.walled-in-berlin.com

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Leierkastenmann of Yore

Monday, March 13th, 2017

 

“Dear Leierkastenmann, start from the top once more …” is the beginning of a sentimental tune about Berlin in the 18th and 19th centuries. Often cranked out on a barrel organ and recorded by Marlene Dietrich, Hildegard Knef, Walter Kollo, Claire Waldoff, Bully Buhlan and many others, the song evokes a yearning for simpler times. The German lyrics are:

Lieber Leierkastenmann,

Fang nochmal von vorne an.

Deine alten Melodien

Von der schoenen Stadt Berlin.

Stehst du unten auf dem Hof

Wird mir gleich ums Herz so doof.

Noch mal so’n junges Blut sein

Noch einmal im Tanz sich zaertlich dreh’n.

Lasst man Kinder, lasst man gut sein,

Uns’re Stadt Berlin ist doch so schoen.

What is a Leierkastenmann?

Leierkasten is the German word for street organ or barrel organ. Pins on a large barrel store the music. A person – usually a man – turning a crank to activate the music is called a Leierkastenmann. A woman is a Leierkastenfrau. The organs were designed to be small and mobile enough to be carried or rolled from street to street and courtyard to courtyard, where the Leierkastenmann would play his tune and hopefully collect some coins before moving on. Most of these street performers cranked barrel organs for a living, and most of these street organs had 20 or fewer pipes and weighed only a few pounds. Due to their small size, their barrels could only contain a few tunes of fixed length, which greatly limited the Leierkastenmann’s repertoire. Most of the tunes played were excerpts from operas, operettas and marches.

When was the Leierkasten popular?

Empress Maria Theresa of Austria was the first to authorize permits to crank a Leierkasten in public. Licenses went to invalids of the Seven-Years-War to help them make a living. In 1810, Prussia copied Austria and issued permits as well. Not every duly licensed Leiderkastenmann owned his own Leierkasten, however. Many rented the relatively expensive instruments from the manufacturer.

As the number of organ barrel operators increased steadily in the second half of the 19th century, Berlin became the leader of German Leierkasten manufacturing. Up to 3,000 licensed operators cranked a Leierkasten on a daily basis in Berlin alone. As these men moved through the city, residents opened their windows and threw a paper-wrapped five- or ten-Pfennig coin to the Leierkastenmann. I was a little girl in the 1950s and remember being allowed to throw a wrapped coin to the Leierkastenmann five stories below. I watched keenly as he spotted the change, doffed his hat and moved on.

In the 1950s, the popularity of the Leierkastenmann had already declined. The increase in automobiles made streets and public spaces noisy places. The noise drowned out the Leierkastenmann, and radio and record players filled the void. The exception was a well-known Leierkastenfrau (woman barrel organ player) by the name of Elsa Oehmigen, who continued to practice her trade throughout Germany until 1992. However, she rarely played in public places, but usually performed at private events.

Leierkastenmann of Today

The Leierkastenmann of yore does not exist anymore. Most current owners of a barrel organ are collectors or lovers of the instrument. In addition to a few antique barrel organs, there are many more modern street organs in existence. The latter do not operate on pinned barrels, but use perforated paper rolls (similar to player piano rolls) or sometimes even electronic systems.

"Orgel-Ebi" Eberhardt Franke in front of the Brandenburg Gate. Photo courtesy of berliner-kurier.de

“Orgel-Ebi” Eberhardt Franke in front of the Brandenburg Gate. Photo courtesy of berliner-kurier.de

Once a profession to make ends meet, the Leierkastenmann has become an icon. In 1987, German sculptor, Gerhard Thieme, memorialized the Leierkastenmann by creating a bronze sculpture, which now stands in the beer garden of the Café Reinhardt in the Berlin’s Nikolai Quarters.

 

For a sneak peek at the first 20+ pages of my memoir, “Walled-In: A West Berlin Girl’s Journey to Freedom,” click “Download a free excerpt” on the home page of http://www.walled-in-berlin.com

 

 

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From Thaler to Euro

Monday, March 6th, 2017

The Thaler was a silver coin used throughout Europe for almost four hundred years. It served as currency in Germany between the 16th and the 19th centuries. The Thaler was first minted in 1519 from locally mined silver in Joachimsthal in the Kingdom of Bohemia, which was part of the Holy Roman Empire at that time. Today, the town of Joachimsthal lies within the borders of the Czech Republic. The word “Thaler” is an abbreviation of “Joachimsthaler,” the term by which the coin was originally known. In 1902, the German spelling of Thaler was changed to Taler in conformance with a spelling reform. Dollar is an Anglicised form of Thaler.

History of the Thaler (Taler)

The Thaler or Taler could be rather gigantic in weight and size. Some of the coins weighed in excess of a full pound of silver; some reached a diameter of more than 5 inches. Similar coins began to also be minted in neighbouring valleys with silver deposits. Each valley named its coins after the valley (thal) it came from. Many silver coins came into existence with different names. To make it easier, the silver coins began to be known as “Thaler” in the German and “Tolar” in the Czech language.

These early Thaler or Taler served the Holy Roman Empire as a standard by which to value various European region’s currencies. The Thaler (or Reichsthaler) was the currency of Prussia until 1754 when the Conventionsthaler was introduced. From 1857 to 1871, the Vereinsthaler served as standard currency in most German states. In addition, there were many other Thaler variations in use.

From Thaler (Taler) to Deutsche Mark

Following German unification in 1871, http://www.walled-in-berlin.com/j-elke-ertle/Otto-von-Bismarck-visionary-or-villain/ Germany adopted the German gold mark, officially known as the Mark as its currency. In 1914, the link between the Mark and gold was abandoned. In late 1923, during the time of the Weimar Republic of Germany, hyperinflation made the paper Mark virtually worthless, and it was replaced by the interim Rentenmark (1,000,000,000,000 paper Mark for one Rentenmark) and by the Reichsmark in 1924.

Toward the end of World War II, the Allied occupation forces printed occupation marks or military marks to be accepted at par with the Rentenmark and the Reichsmark. Banknotes worth 15 to 18 billion military marks were issued for purchases by the occupying forces in Germany and to pay soldiers’ wages. In June 1948, military marks were demonetised as part of the West and East German currency reforms.

On 21 June 1948, the Deutsche Mark (colloquially called “Westmark”) was introduced in the western zones of occupation in Germany (West Germany. And on 23 June 1948, a different Deutsche Mark (colloquially called “Ostmark”) was introduced in Soviet-occupied Germany. The Westmark replaced the Ostmark when Germany was reunified in 1990.

From Deutsche Mark to Euro

In 1999, the Euro replaced the Deutsche Mark (Westmark), http://www.walled-in-berlin.com/j-elke-ertle/history-of-the-euro/ initially only as an electronic currency. Then, in 2002, Euro notes and coins replaced the Deutsche Mark entirely. Although not every Eurozone member state has its own mint to produce euro coins, Germany mints its own. All euro coins are legal tender throughout the Eurozone, and all designs feature the 12 stars of the EU and the year of imprint.

But who is the father of the euro sign? Two different camps claim paternity. More at http://www.walled-in-berlin.com/j-elke-ertle/paternity-for-euro-sign-disputed/

1 Euro coin, featuring the 12 stars of the EU, Photo © J. Elke Ertle, 2017. www.walled-in-berlin.com

1 Euro coin, featuring the 12 stars of the EU, Photo © J. Elke Ertle, 2017. www.walled-in-berlin.com

For a sneak peek at the first 20+ pages of my memoir, “Walled-In: A West Berlin Girl’s Journey to Freedom,” click “Download a free excerpt” on the home page of http://www.walled-in-berlin.com

 

 

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Live in peace

Thursday, March 2nd, 2017

Why do we only rest in peace? Why don’t we live in peace too?

— Alison Billett

But also Live in Peace. www.walled-in-berlin.com

But also Live in Peace. www.walled-in-berlin.com

 

For a sneak peek at the first 20+ pages of my memoir, “Walled-In: A West Berlin Girl’s Journey to Freedom,” click “Download a free excerpt” on the home page of http://www.walled-in-berlin.com

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500th Anniversary Martin Luther’s Theses

Monday, February 27th, 2017

 

On 31 October 2017, Protestants throughout the world will celebrate the 500th anniversary of the day on which Martin Luther is said to have nailed 95 Theses to the door of All Saints’ Church in Wittenberg, Germany. Luther was a German monk and professor of moral theology at the University of Wittenberg http://www.walled-in-berlin.com/j-elke-ertle/a-man-called-martin-luther/ who became disillusioned with certain abuses practiced by the 16th century Roman Catholic Church. Martin Luther’s Theses eventually sparked the Protestant Reformation. Twelve years after he is said to have nailed the Theses to the church door, the word “Protestant” became a term that described those who protested against the Catholic Church.

Why Martin Luther’s Theses?

In 1510 Luther visited Rome and was disgusted by the practices of church officials, and in particular, by their sale of indulgences. Indulgences were certificates that could be purchased to reduce the punishment for sins committed by the purchasers or their loved ones in purgatory. Martin Luther argued the church practice lead people to think that they could forgo repentance by purchasing indulgences.

 

Martin Luther depicted as nailing his 95 Thesis to the door of All Saints' Church in Wittenberg, Germany.

Martin Luther depicted as nailing his 95 Thesis to the door of All Saints’ Church in Wittenberg, Germany.
www.walled-in-berlin.com

 

 In 1515, Pope Leo X granted indulgences to finance the construction of St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome. These certificates, in particular, could be purchased to reduce the punishment for almost any sin, including adultery and theft. With his 95 Theses Luther intended to express his disillusionment over this corruption. His Theses called for a reform of the Catholic Church and challenged other scholars to debate church policy. The indulgence controversy set off by the Martin Luther’s Theses was the beginning of the Protestant Reformation, which set into motion lasting social and political change in Europe.

How did Word of the 95 Theses Spread?

On 31 October 1517, Luther sent a letter to Albert of Brandenburg, Archbishop of Mainz, because it was under the archbishop’s authority that indulgences were sold. Whether Luther also posted the Theses on the door of All Saints’ Church and on other churches in Wittenberg is not clear. In any case, Martin Luther’s Theses were quickly reprinted, translated, and distributed throughout Germany and Europe. Although Luther wrote the Theses to be argued in an academic disputation (a formalized method of debate), there is no evidence that such a debate ever took place. No copies of a Wittenberg printing of the 95 Theses have ever been discovered.

Is the nailing of Martin Luther’s Theses a myth?

Today, the majority of researchers agree that Luther mailed the Thesis to the archbishop on 31 October 1517, but they question that he nailed them to the door of All Saint’s. In the early 1960s, researchers began to doubt the latter because the first written account of the event comes from Philip Melanchthon, Luther’s colleague and close friend. Erwin Iserloh, a catholic Luther researcher, suggests that the nailing could not have taking place because Philip Melanchthon did not arrive in Wittenberg until 1518 and therefore could not have been an eyewitness to the event. Besides, Melanchthon never mentioned the nailing until after Luther’s death. Although announcements were routinely hung on the door of All Saints’, the nailing of the 95 theses prior to hearing back from the archbishop seems unlikely.

Walk in Martin Luther’s Footsteps

The German tourism industry has geared up to help visitors discover the history of Reformation. Visitors are encouraged to follow Luther’s footsteps on the 745-mile Luther Trail or to discover his life and legacy on numerous mini-tours across Germany. Tours by train, bus and foot are available to fit every budget. The most prominent Luther sites are Wittenberg, Eisleben and Eisenach. Other cities and towns associated with Martin Luther are Allstedt, Altenburg, Augsburg, Bad Frankenhausen, Bad Hersfeld, Bad Neustadt, Bretten, Coburg, Dresden, Eilenburg, Erfurt, Gotha, Grimma, Halle, Heidelberg, Jena, Leipzig, Magdeburg, Mansfeld, Marburg, Moehra, Muellhausen, Naumburg, Nuremberg, Oppenheim, Pirna, Schmalkalden, Sonneberg, Speyer, Torgau, Weimar, Worms and Zeitz. For more information, visit

http://www.visit-luther.com/explore-luthercountry/events/all-luthercountry-events/

 

For a sneak peek at the first 20+ pages of my memoir, “Walled-In: A West Berlin Girl’s Journey to Freedom,” click “Download a free excerpt” on the home page of http://www.walled-in-berlin.com

 

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Turning Resolve into Success

Thursday, February 23rd, 2017

Success is the ability to go from one failure to another with no loss of enthusiasm.

— Sir Winston Churchill

 

For a sneak peek at the first 20+ pages of my memoir, “Walled-In: A West Berlin Girl’s Journey to Freedom,” click “Download a free excerpt” on the home page of http://www.walled-in-berlin.com

 

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Frederick the Great shaped modern Europe

Monday, February 20th, 2017

King Frederick the Great (Friedrich der Grosse) was born in 1712 in Berlin, Germany. In 1740, he inherited the Prussian throne from his father, Frederick William I (Friedrich Wilhelm I) http://www.walled-in-berlin.com/j-elke-ertle/frederick-william-i-a-troubled-ruler/ and ruled until 1786. He was bestowed the epitaph of “the Great” during his lifetime and was affectionately nicknamed “Der Alte Fritz” (Old Fritz) by the Prussian people.

It is doubtful that Otto von Bismarck http://www.walled-in-berlin.com/j-elke-ertle/otto-von-bismarck-visionary-or-villain/ could have united Germany without Frederick the Great’s achievements. In addition to being an excellent military strategist and one of the most enlightened monarchs of the area, Frederick the Great was also an insightful historian, a probing philosopher, an accomplished musician and an insatiable reader. During his time in power, Prussia became one of the preeminent powers in Europe.

Frederick the Great’s childhood

Frederick the Great’s father was a violent authoritarian with a quick temper who expected his son to embrace the military to the exclusion of all other pursuits. But the young price preferred the arts and culture to the art of war. Frederick William responded by beating and humiliating his son. At age 18, young Frederick attempted to escape to England together with his friend, Hans Hermann von Katte. The two were caught and arrested for treason. In a cruel spectacle, Frederick William made his son watch the decapitation of his friend. Thereafter, Frederick the Great bowed to his father’s wishes.

Frederick the Great’s Domestic Achievements

Frederick the Great achieved a high reputation as a military commander and is often remembered as the father of Prussian militarism, but his impact was even more evident domestically. He not only reformed the military and the bureaucracy, he also established religious tolerance and granted a basic form of freedom of speech and press. He reformed the judicial system, abolishing most uses of torture and established the first German code of law. He also encouraged immigrants of various nationalities and faiths to come to Prussia.

 

Frederick II, King of Prussia (known as Frederick the Great), 1712-1786. www.walled-in-berlin.com. Photo courtesy of en.wikipedia

Frederick II, King of Prussia (known as Frederick the Great), 1712-1786. www.walled-in-berlin.com. Photo courtesy of en.wikipedia

 

Frederick the Great’s reign saw a revolutionary change in the importance and prestige of Prussia. Despite preferring the French language to his native German, Frederick distrusted France’s intentions. “Distrust is the mother of security” became his motto.

Frederick the Great’s Architectural Achievements

Frederick had many famous buildings constructed in Berlin. Most of them still exist today, such as the Berlin State Opera (Berliner Staatsoper), the Royal Library (Staatsbioliothek Berlin), St. Hedwig’s Cathedral (Sankt-Hedwig-Kathedrale) and Prince Henry’s Palace (now the site of the Humboldt University (Humboldt Universitaet.) http://www.walled-in-berlin.com/j-elke-ertle/berlins-prestigious-humboldt-university/ However, the king’s most favorite place was his summer residence, Sanssouci, in Potsdam. http://www.walled-in-berlin.com/j-elke-ertle/sanssouci-modest-kings-retreat/

 

For a sneak peek at the first 20+ pages of my memoir, “Walled-In: A West Berlin Girl’s Journey to Freedom,” click “Download a free excerpt” on the home page of http://www.walled-in-berlin.com

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